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Prilocaine- and Lidocaine-induced Methemoglobinemia is Caused by Human Carboxylesterase-, CYP2E1- and CYP3A4-mediated Metabolic Activation.


Drug Metab Dispos. 2013 Mar 25;


Authors: Higuchi R, Fukami T, Nakajima M, Yokoi T


Abstract

Prilocaine and lidocaine are classified as amide-type local anesthetics whose serious adverse effects include methemoglobinemia. Although the hydrolyzed metabolites of prilocaine (o-toluidine) and lidocaine (2,6-xylidine) have been suspected to induce methemoglobinemia, the metabolic enzymes that are involved remain uncharacterized. In the present study, we aimed to identify the human enzymes that are responsible for prilocaine- and lidocaine-induced methemoglobinemia. Our experiments revealed that prilocaine was hydrolyzed by recombinant human carboxylesterase (CES) 1A and CES2, whereas lidocaine was hydrolyzed only by human CES1A. When the parent compounds (prilocaine and lidocaine) were incubated with HLM, Met-Hb formation was lower than when the hydrolyzed metabolites were incubated with HLM. In addition, Met-Hb formation when prilocaine and o-toluidine were incubated with HLM was higher than that when lidocaine and 2,6-xylidine were incubated with HLM. Incubation with diisopropyl fluorophosphate and bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate, which are general inhibitors of CES, significantly decreased Met-Hb formation when prilocaine and lidocaine were incubated with HLM. An anti-CYP3A4 antibody further decreased the residual formation of Met-Hb. Met-Hb formation following the incubation of o-toluidine and 2,6-xylidine with HLM was only markedly decreased by incubation with an anti-CYP2E1 antibody. o-Toluidine and 2,6-xylidine were further metabolized by CYP2E1 to 4- and 6-hydroxy-o-toluidine and 4-hydroxy-2,6-xylidine, respectively, and these metabolites were shown to more efficiently induce Met-Hb formation than the parent compounds. Collectively, we found that the metabolites produced by human CES-, CYP2E1- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism were involved in prilocaine- and lidocaine-induced methemoglobinemia.

PMID: 23530020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]