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Polymorphisms of CYP2D6 Gene and Gefitinib-Induced Hepatotoxicity.


Clin Lung Cancer. 2013 May 9;


Authors: Takimoto T, Kijima T, Otani Y, Nonen S, Namba Y, Mori M, Yokota S, Minami S, Komuta K, Uchida J, Imamura F, Furukawa M, Tsuruta N, Fujio Y, Azuma J, Tachibana I, Kumanogoh A


Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Gefitinib induces severe hepatotoxicity in approximately a quarter of Japanese patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes-including CYP3A4/5, CYP1A1, and CYP2D6-in the liver. We hypothesized that polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 gene may account for gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 gene were analyzed in 55 patients with NSCLC who experienced grade ≥ 2 transaminase elevation from gefitinib. The distribution of the CYP2D6 genotype was compared with that of the healthy Japanese population. The correlations between the nonfunctional allele *5 or the reduced-function allele *10 and hepatotoxicity-related clinical factors were also examined. RESULTS: The distribution of the CYP2D6 genotype in the study participants was not different from that of the general Japanese population, reported previously. Existence of allele *5 or *10 did not correlate with clinical factors such as onset of hepatotoxicity within 2 months, grade ≥ 3 serum transaminase elevation, and tolerability to dose reduction or rechallenge of gefitinib. However, in 7 patients taking CYP3A4-inhibitory drugs, rechallenge of gefitinib again caused hepatotoxicity in 4 patients with allele *5 or *10 but not in 3 patients with normal alleles (P = .029). Moreover, switching to erlotinib did not cause hepatotoxicity in any of 17 patients with allele *5 or *10 but did in 3 of 8 patients without these alleles (P = .024). CONCLUSION: Reduced function of CYP2D6 may partly account for gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity when CYP3A4 is inhibited. Erlotinib could be safely used in patients with decreased CYP2D6 activity even after they experienced gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity.

PMID: 23664723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]